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Growth and Yield Data for the Bushland, Texas, Cotton Datasets

posted on 2024-04-04, 21:59 authored by Steven EvettSteven Evett, Gary W. Marek, Karen S. Copeland, Terry A. Sr. Howell, Paul D. Colaizzi, David K. Brauer, Brice B. Ruthardt

This dataset consists of growth and yield data for each season when upland cotton [Gossympium hirsutum (L.)] was grown for lint and seed at the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Research Laboratory (CPRL), Soil and Water Management Research Unit (SWMRU), Bushland, Texas (Lat. 35.186714°, Long. -102.094189°, elevation 1170 m above MSL). In the 2000 through 2004, 2008, 2010, 2012, and 2020 seasons, cotton was grown on from one to four large, precision weighing lysimeters, each in the center of a 4.44 ha square field also planted to cotton. The square fields were themselves arranged in a larger square with four fields in four adjacent quadrants of the larger square. Fields and lysimeters within each field were thus designated northeast (NE), southeast (SE), northwest (NW), and southwest (SW). Cotton was grown on different combinations of fields in different years. When irrigated, irrigation was by linear move sprinkler system years before 2014, and by both sprinkler and subsurface drip irrigation in 2020. Irrigation protocols described as full were managed to replenish soil water used by the crop on a weekly or more frequent basis as determined by soil profile water content readings made with a neutron probe to 2.4-m depth in the field. Irrigation protocols described as deficit typically involved irrigation at rates established as percentages of full irrigation ranging from 33% to 75% depending on the year.

The growth and yield data typically include plant population density, height, plant row width, leaf area index, growth stage, total above-ground biomass, leaf and stem biomass, boll mass (when present), lint mass, seed mass, final yield, and lint quality. Data are from replicate samples in the field and non-destructive (except for final harvest) measurements on the weighing lysimeters. In most cases yield data are available from only manual sampling on replicate plots in each field and lysimeters.

These datasets originate from research aimed at determining crop water use (ET), crop coefficients for use in ET-based irrigation scheduling based on a reference ET, crop growth, yield, harvest index, and crop water productivity as affected by irrigation method, timing, amount (full or some degree of deficit), agronomic practices, cultivar, and weather. Prior publications have focused on cotton ET, crop coefficients, crop water productivity, and simulation modeling of crop water use, growth, and yield. Crop coefficients have been used by ET networks. The data have utility for testing simulation models of crop ET, growth, and yield and have been used for testing, and calibrating models of ET that use satellite and/or weather data.

See the README for descriptions of each data file.


USDA-ARS: 3090-13000-016-00D


Data contact name

Evett, Steven R.

Data contact email


Ag Data Commons

Intended use

These data may be used to test and calibrate models of plant growth, water use (ET), and yield, and may be used to develop crop coefficients for use with a reference evapotranspiration model to estimate crop water use. Care was taken to ensure that lysimeter ET data were representative of the 4.4 ha fields within which each lysimeter was centered. Therefore, satellite data with 100-m or smaller pixels may be suitable for use with the lysimeter data in testing and calibration of models based on satellite data.

Use limitations

The data pertain to the specific location, soil, climate, cultivar, and agronomic practices described in the data sets. Extrapolation to other climates, soils, cultivars, and practices should be done with care. Individual fields were square and somewhat larger than 210 m in width and length, so care should be used when combining satellite data with these data if satellite image pixels are comparatively large. Observations of air temperature and relative humidity, wind speed, and solar irradiance taken at the lysimeters should not be used as weather input for simulation models; weather data observed under standard conditions at the research weather station should be used as input to simulation models. Plant growth and yield data are from replicate plots in each of the four lysimeter fields. Examination of the data variance should be examined to determine in there are clear differences in data from different fields. Number of replicates and plot sizes may have changed between seasons but are given in the data files.

Temporal Extent Start Date


Temporal Extent End Date



  • irregular


  • Not specified

Geographic Coverage


ISO Topic Category

  • climatologyMeteorologyAtmosphere
  • farming
  • geoscientificInformation

National Agricultural Library Thesaurus terms

data collection; Texas; lysimeters; arid lands; protocols; soil water; soil profiles; water content; neutron probes; winter; spring; population density; leaf area index; developmental stages; aboveground biomass; leaves; head; mechanical harvesting; crop coefficient; irrigation scheduling; harvest index; irrigation systems; plant cultural practices; cultivars; simulation models; satellites; meteorological data; crop yield; Gossympium hirsutum; cotton; lint cotton; microirrigation; seed weight

OMB Bureau Code

  • 005:18 - Agricultural Research Service

OMB Program Code

  • 005:040 - National Research

ARS National Program Number

  • 211

Primary article PubAg Handle

Pending citation

  • No

Public Access Level

  • Public

Preferred dataset citation

Evett, Steven R.; Marek, Gary W.; Copeland, Karen S.; Howell, Terry A. Sr.; Colaizzi, Paul D.; Brauer, David K.; Ruthardt, Brice B. (2023). Growth and Yield Data for the Bushland, Texas, Cotton Datasets. Ag Data Commons.