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TreeMap 2016 Live Tree Stocking (Image Service)

posted on 2024-06-05, 12:52 authored by U.S. Forest Service
TreeMap 2016 provides a tree-level model of the forests of the conterminous United States.

We matched forest plot data from Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) to a 30x30 meter (m) grid. TreeMap 2016 is being used in both the private and public sectors for projects including fuel treatment planning, snag hazard mapping, and estimation of terrestrial carbon resources. We used a random forests machine-learning algorithm to impute the forest plot data to a set of target rasters provided by Landscape Fire and Resource Management Planning Tools (LANDFIRE: Predictor variables consisted of percent forest cover, height, and vegetation type, as well as topography (slope, elevation, and aspect), location (latitude and longitude), biophysical variables (photosynthetically active radiation, precipitation, maximum temperature, minimum temperature, relative humidity, and vapour pressure deficit), and disturbance history (time since disturbance and disturbance type) for the landscape circa 2016. The main output of this project (the GeoTIFF included in this data publication) is a raster map of imputed plot identifiers at 30X30 m spatial resolution for the conterminous U.S. for landscape conditions circa 2016. In the attribute table of this raster, we also present a set of attributes drawn from the FIA databases, including forest type and live basal area. The raster map of plot identifiers can be linked to the FIA databases available through the FIA DataMart ( The dataset has been validated for applications including percent live tree cover, height of the dominant trees, forest type, species of trees with most basal area, aboveground biomass, fuel treatment planning, and snag hazard. Application of the dataset to research questions other than those for which it has been validated should be investigated by the researcher before proceeding. The dataset may be suitable for other applications and for use across various scales (stand, landscape, and region), however, the researcher should test the dataset's applicability to a particular research question before proceeding.

This raster dataset represents model output generated by a random forests method that assigns Forest Inventory Analysis plot identifiers to a 30x30m grid (Riley et al. 2016 and Riley et al. 2021). Some attributes provided have been validated as detailed below, and we have high confidence they would be suitable for stand, county, and national scale analyses. Other attributes have not been validated as of this writing on 2/25/2022. Accuracy may vary regionally. This dataset is for the landscape circa 2016 and does not capture disturbances such as fire and land management after that date. Based on a set of FIA validation plots, these data have moderate to high accuracy at point locations for forest cover, height, vegetation group, and recent disturbance by fire and insects and disease (Riley et al. 2021). Summary statistics at Baileys section and subsection levels indicate high accuracy in most sections and subsections when compared to FIA statistics for live basal area, number of live trees greater than or equal to 1 diameter, live cubic-foot volume, and live-tree biomass. Estimates of number of dead trees greater than or equal to 5 diameter and dead tree above-ground biomass have lower correlations with FIA estimates, which are driven largely by the fact that TreeMap does not include areas where live tree cover is less than 10% while FIA does, meaning that severely disturbed areas are not included in mapping. In general, the TreeMap data are appropriately used for planning and policy-level analyses and decisions. Local map accuracy is suitable for many local-scale decisions regarding questions around forest cover, height, vegetation group, and recent disturbances. For other attributes provided here, formal validation has not been completed, and assessment at local scales is advised and must be driven by project-specific needs. References: Riley, Karin L., Isaac C. Grenfell, and Mark A. Finney. 2016. Mapping Forest Vegetation for the Western United States Using Modified Random Forests Imputation of FIA Forest Plots. Ecosphere 7 (10): e01472. Riley, Karin L., Isaac C. Grenfell, Mark A. Finney, and John D. Shaw. 2021. TreeMap 2016: A Tree-Level Model of the Forests of the Conterminous United States circa 2016.

This record was taken from the USDA Enterprise Data Inventory that feeds into the catalog. Data for this record includes the following resources:
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Data contact name


Data contact email


U.S. Forest Service


  • Geospatial

Geographic Coverage


ISO Topic Category

  • environment

National Agricultural Library Thesaurus terms

Forestry, Wildland Management

OMB Bureau Code

  • 005:96 - Forest Service

OMB Program Code

  • 005:059 - Management Activities

Pending citation

  • No

Public Access Level

  • Public