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Genomic Diversity in Pearl Millet Inbred Lines Derived From Landraces and Improved Varieties

posted on 2024-01-26, 23:50 authored by USDA, Kansas State University
Genetic improvement of pearl millet is lagging behind most of the major crops. Development of genomic resources is expected to expedite breeding for improved agronomic traits, stress tolerance, yield, and nutritional quality. Genotyping a breeding population with high throughput markers enables exploration of genetic diversity, population structure, and linkage disequilibrium (LD) which are important preludes for marker-trait association studies and application of genomic-assisted breeding.Results: Sequencing genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) libraries of 309 inbred lines derived from landraces and improved varieties from Africa and India generated 54,770 high quality single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. On average, one SNP per 29 Kb was mapped in the reference genome, with telomeric regions more densely mapped than the pericentromeric regions. Population structure analysis using 30,208 SNPs evenly distributed in the genome, divided 309 accessions into five subpopulations with different levels of admixture. Pairwise genetic distance (GD) between accessions varied from 0.09 to 0.33 with the average distance of 0.28. Rapid LD decay implied a low tendency of markers inherited together. Genetic differentiation estimates were the highest between subgroups 4 and 5, and the lowest between subgroups 1 and 2. Population genomic analysis of pearl millet inbred lines derived from diverse geographic and agroecological features identified five subgroups mostly following pedigree differences with different levels of admixture. It also revealed the prevalence of high genetic diversity in pearl millet, which is very useful in defining heterotic groups for hybrid breeding, trait mapping, and holds promise for improving pearl millet for yield and nutritional quality. The short LD decay observed suggests an absence of persistent haplotype blocks in pearl millet. The diverse genetic background of these lines, and their low LD, make this set of germplasm useful for trait mapping.Key words: Genetic Diversity, Population Structure, Pennisetum glaucum, Cenchrus americanus, Genotyping-By-Sequencing, SNPs. full author list : Ghislain Kanfany, Desalegn D. Serba, Davina Rhodes, Paul St. Amand, Amy Bernardo, Prakash Gangashetty, Ndjido Ardo Kane, and Guihua Bai.


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sequence analysis

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