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Evapotranspiration, Irrigation, Dew/frost - Water Balance Data for The Bushland, Texas Winter Wheat Datasets

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posted on 2024-04-08, 21:26 authored by Steven EvettSteven Evett, Gary W. Marek, Karen S. Copeland, Terry A. Sr. Howell, Paul D. Colaizzi, David K. Brauer, Brice B. Ruthardt

This dataset contains water balance data for each year when winter wheat was grown at the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Laboratory (CPRL), Soil and Water Management Research Unit (SWMRU) research weather station, Bushland, Texas (Lat. 35.186714°, Long. -102.094189°, elevation 1170 m above MSL). Winter wheat was grown on two large, precision weighing lysimeters, each in the center of a 4.44 ha square field in the 1989-1990, 1991-1992, and 1992-1993 seasons. Irrigation was by linear move sprinkler system. Full irrigations were managed to replenish soil water used by the crop on a weekly or more frequent basis as determined by soil profile water content readings made with a neutron probe to 2.4-m depth in the field. Deficit irrigations were less than full - see crop calendars and irrigation data in these files for details. The weighing lysimeters were used to measure relative soil water storage to 0.05 mm accuracy at 5-minute intervals, and the 5-minute change in soil water storage was used along with precipitation and irrigation amounts to calculate crop evapotranspiration (ET), which is reported at 15-minute intervals. Because the large (3 m by 3 m surface area) weighing lysimeters are better rain gages than are tipping bucket gages, the 15-minute precipitation data are derived for each lysimeter from changes in lysimeter mass. The land slope is <0.3% and flat.
The water balance data consist of 15-minute and daily amounts of evapotranspiration (ET), dew/frost fall, precipitation (rain/snow), irrigation, scale counterweight adjustment, and emptying of drainage tanks, all in mm. The values are the result of a rigorous quality control process involving algorithms for detecting dew/frost accumulations, and precipitation (rain and snow). Changes in lysimeter mass due to emptying of drainage tanks, counterweight adjustment, maintenance activity, and harvest are accounted for such that ET values are minimally affected. The ET data should be considered to be the best values offered in these datasets. Even though ET data are also presented in the "lysimeter" datasets, the values herein are the result of a more rigorous quality control process. Dew and frost accumulation varies from year to year and seasonally within a year, and it is affected by lysimeter surface condition [bare soil, tillage condition, residue amount and orientation (flat or standing), etc.]. Particularly during winter and depending on humidity and cloud cover, dew and frost accumulation sometimes accounts for an appreciable percentage of total daily ET.
These datasets originate from research aimed at determining crop water use (ET), crop coefficients for use in ET-based irrigation scheduling based on a reference ET, crop growth, yield, harvest index, and crop water productivity as affected by irrigation method, timing, amount (full or some degree of deficit), agronomic practices, cultivar, and weather. Prior publications have focused on winter wheat ET, crop coefficients, and crop water productivity. Crop coefficients have been used by ET networks. The data have utility for testing simulation models of crop ET, growth, and yield.


Resources in this dataset:

  • Resource Title: 1989 Bushland, TX. West Winter Wheat Evapotranspiration, Irrigation, and Water Balance Data.

    File Name: 1989_W_Wheat_water_balance.xlsx

    Resource Description: The data consist of 15-minute and daily amounts of evapotranspiration (ET), dew/frost accumulation, precipitation (rain/snow), irrigation, scale counterweight adjustment, and emptying of drainage tanks, all in mm. The values are the result of a rigorous quality control process involving algorithms for detecting dew/frost accumulations, and precipitation (rain and snow). Changes in lysimeter mass due to precipitation, irrigation, frost and dew accumulation, emptying of drainage tanks, counterweight adjustment, maintenance activity, and harvest are accounted for such that ET values are minimally affected.


  • Resource Title: 1990 Bushland, TX. West Winter Wheat Evapotranspiration, Irrigation, and Water Balance Data.

    File Name: 1990_W_Wheat_water_balance.xlsx

    Resource Description: The data consist of 15-minute and daily amounts of evapotranspiration (ET), dew/frost accumulation, precipitation (rain/snow), irrigation, scale counterweight adjustment, and emptying of drainage tanks, all in mm. The values are the result of a rigorous quality control process involving algorithms for detecting dew/frost accumulations, and precipitation (rain and snow). Changes in lysimeter mass due to precipitation, irrigation, frost and dew accumulation, emptying of drainage tanks, counterweight adjustment, maintenance activity, and harvest are accounted for such that ET values are minimally affected.


  • Resource Title: 1991 Bushland, TX. East Winter Wheat Evapotranspiration, Irrigation, and Water Balance Data.

    File Name: 1991_E_Wheat_water_balance.xlsx

    Resource Description: The data consist of 15-minute and daily amounts of evapotranspiration (ET), dew/frost accumulation, precipitation (rain/snow), irrigation, scale counterweight adjustment, and emptying of drainage tanks, all in mm. The values are the result of a rigorous quality control process involving algorithms for detecting dew/frost accumulations, and precipitation (rain and snow). Changes in lysimeter mass due to precipitation, irrigation, frost and dew accumulation, emptying of drainage tanks, counterweight adjustment, maintenance activity, and harvest are accounted for such that ET values are minimally affected.


  • Resource Title: 1992 Bushland, TX. East Winter Wheat Evapotranspiration, Irrigation, and Water Balance Data.

    File Name: 1992_E_Wheat_water_balance.xlsx

    Resource Description: The data consist of 15-minute and daily amounts of evapotranspiration (ET), dew/frost accumulation, precipitation (rain/snow), irrigation, scale counterweight adjustment, and emptying of drainage tanks, all in mm. The values are the result of a rigorous quality control process involving algorithms for detecting dew/frost accumulations, and precipitation (rain and snow). Changes in lysimeter mass due to precipitation, irrigation, frost and dew accumulation, emptying of drainage tanks, counterweight adjustment, maintenance activity, and harvest are accounted for such that ET values are minimally affected.


  • Resource Title: 1992 Bushland, TX. West Winter Wheat Evapotranspiration, Irrigation, and Water Balance Data.

    File Name: 1992_W_Wheat_water_balance.xlsx

    Resource Description: The data consist of 15-minute and daily amounts of evapotranspiration (ET), dew/frost accumulation, precipitation (rain/snow), irrigation, scale counterweight adjustment, and emptying of drainage tanks, all in mm. The values are the result of a rigorous quality control process involving algorithms for detecting dew/frost accumulations, and precipitation (rain and snow). Changes in lysimeter mass due to precipitation, irrigation, frost and dew accumulation, emptying of drainage tanks, counterweight adjustment, maintenance activity, and harvest are accounted for such that ET values are minimally affected.


  • Resource Title: 1993 Bushland, TX. West Winter Wheat Evapotranspiration, Irrigation, and Water Balance Data.

    File Name: 1993_W_Wheat_water_balance.xlsx

    Resource Description: The data consist of 15-minute and daily amounts of evapotranspiration (ET), dew/frost accumulation, precipitation (rain/snow), irrigation, scale counterweight adjustment, and emptying of drainage tanks, all in mm. The values are the result of a rigorous quality control process involving algorithms for detecting dew/frost accumulations, and precipitation (rain and snow). Changes in lysimeter mass due to precipitation, irrigation, frost and dew accumulation, emptying of drainage tanks, counterweight adjustment, maintenance activity, and harvest are accounted for such that ET values are minimally affected.

Funding

USDA-ARS: 3090-13000-015-00D

History

Data contact name

Evett, Steven R.

Data contact email

steve.evett@usda.gov

Publisher

Ag Data Commons

Intended use

These data may be used to test and calibrate models of winter wheat growth, water use (ET), and yield, may be used to test and develop winter wheat ET estimation methods, and may be used to develop crop coefficients for use with a reference evapotranspiration model to estimate crop water use. Care was taken to ensure that lysimeter ET data were representative of the 4.4 ha fields within which each lysimeter was centered. Therefore, satellite data with 100-m or smaller pixels may be suitable for use with the lysimeter data in testing and calibration of models based on satellite data.

Use limitations

The data pertain to the specific location, soil, climate, cultivar, and agronomic practices described in the data sets. Extrapolation to other climates, soils, cultivars, and practices should be done with care. Individual fields were square and somewhat larger than 210 m in width and length, so care should be used when combining satellite data with these data if satellite image pixels are large. Observations of air temperature and relative humidity, wind speed, and solar irradiance taken at the lysimeters should not be used as weather input for simulation models; weather data observed under standard conditions at the research weather station should be used as input to simulation models. Precipitation varies spatially in this environment due to the convective thunderstorms that account for a large portion of precipitation. Therefore, precipitation values differ among the lysimeters and detailed work should take this into account. Dew and frost accumulation is difficult to detect and the values are more subject to error than other values in this dataset.

Temporal Extent Start Date

1989-01-01

Temporal Extent End Date

1993-12-31

Frequency

  • irregular

Theme

  • Not specified

Geographic Coverage

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Geographic location - description

Bushland, Texas

ISO Topic Category

  • climatologyMeteorologyAtmosphere
  • farming
  • geoscientificInformation

National Agricultural Library Thesaurus terms

evapotranspiration; dew; frost; Texas; data collection; growing season; Agricultural Research Service; lysimeters; microirrigation; soil water; soil profiles; water content; neutron probes; soil water storage; irrigation rates; surface area; rain; snow; drainage; tanks; quality control; algorithms; tillage; winter; humidity; cloud cover; crop coefficient; irrigation scheduling; harvest index; plant cultural practices; cultivars; simulation models; satellites; meteorological data; weather; crop yield; winter wheat; Triticum aestivum

OMB Bureau Code

  • 005:18 - Agricultural Research Service

OMB Program Code

  • 005:040 - National Research

ARS National Program Number

  • 211

Primary article PubAg Handle

Pending citation

  • No

Related material without URL

Howell, T.A., J.A. Tolk, S.R. Evett, K.S. Copeland and D.A. Dusek. (2007). Evapotranspiration of deficit irrigated sorghum and winter wheat. Pp. 223-239 In The Role of Irrigation and Drainage in a Sustainable Future, USCID Fourth International Conference on Irrigation and Drainage, Sacramento, California, October 3-6, 2007. U.S. Committee on Irrigation and Drainage, Denver, Colorado USA Evett, S.R., Howell, T.A., Schneider, A.D., Copeland, K.S., & Dusek, D.A. (1994). Energy and water balance modeling of winter wheat. ASAE Paper No. 94-2022. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, MO.

Public Access Level

  • Public

Preferred dataset citation

Evett, Steven R.; Marek, Gary W.; Copeland, Karen S.; Howell, Terry A. Sr.; Colaizzi, Paul D.; Brauer, David K.; Ruthardt, Brice B. (2022). Evapotranspiration, Irrigation, Dew/frost - Water Balance Data for The Bushland, Texas Winter Wheat Datasets. Ag Data Commons. https://doi.org/10.15482/USDA.ADC/1527917