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Data from: Wild emmer genome architecture and diversity elucidate wheat evolution and domestication

posted on 2024-02-13, 13:13 authored by Raz Avni, Moran Nave, Omer Barad, Kobi Baruch, Sven O. Twardziok, Heidrun Gundlach, Iago Hale, Martin Mascher, Manuel Spannagl, Krystalee Wiebe, Katherine W. Jordan, Guy Golan, Jasline Deek, Batsheva Ben-Zvi, Gil Ben-Zvi, Axel Himmelbach, Ron P. MacLachlan, Andrew G. Sharpe, Allan Fritz, Roi Ben-David, Hikmet Budak, Tzion Fahima, Abraham Korol, Justin D. Faris, Alvaro Hernandez, Mark A. Mikel, Avraham A. Levy, Brian Steffenson, Marco Maccaferri, Roberto Tuberosa, Luigi Cattivelli, Primetta Faccioli, Aldo Ceriotti, Khalil Kashkush, Mohammad Pourkheirandish, Takao Komatsuda, Tamar Eilam, Hanan Sela, Amir Sharon, Nir Ohad, Daniel A. Chamovitz, Klaus F.X. Mayer, Nils Stein, Gil Ronen, Zvi Peleg, Curtis J. Pozniak, Eduard D. Akhunov, Assaf Distelfeld

Wheat (Triticum spp.) is one of the founder crops that likely drove the Neolithic transition to sedentary agrarian societies in the Fertile Crescent more than 10,000 years ago. Identifying genetic modifications underlying wheat's domestication requires knowledge about the genome of its allo-tetraploid progenitor, wild emmer (T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides). We report a 10.1-gigabase assembly of the 14 chromosomes of wild tetraploid wheat, as well as analyses of gene content, genome architecture, and genetic diversity. With this fully assembled polyploid wheat genome, we identified the causal mutations in Brittle Rachis 1 (TtBtr1) genes controlling shattering, a key domestication trait. A study of genomic diversity among wild and domesticated accessions revealed genomic regions bearing the signature of selection under domestication. This reference assembly will serve as a resource for accelerating the genome-assisted improvement of modern wheat varieties.

Resources in this dataset:

  • Resource Title: Pointer to Supplementary Materials.

    File Name: Web Page, url:

    Pointer to Supplementary Materials at Science. Files are:

    Supplementary file S1: The analysis of homoeology between the A and B sub-genomes - Download Excel

    Supplementary file S2: The full-length LTR-transposon insertion data - Download Excel

    Supplementary file S3: The sliding window-based estimates of genetic diversity in the populations of wild and domesticated emmer wheat - Download Excel

    Supplementary file S4: Outlier regions from the sliding window-based analyses of genetic diversity - Download Excel

    Supplementary file S5: The list of long ( ≥200 bp) non-coding transcripts - Download zip (Zipped BED format tab-delimited text file.)

    Supplementary file S6: Scaffold locations on WEW pseudomolecules - Download Excel

    Supplementary file S7: Summary report of assembly errors identified by read remapping analysis - Download zip (Tab delimited text file)


USDA-NIFA: 2016-67013-24473

Israel Science Foundation: 999/12

Israel Science Foundation: 1824/12

Israel Science Foundation: 322/15

German-Israeli Foundation for Scientific Research and Development: I-1212-315.13

United States - Israel Binational Science Foundation: 2013396

United States - Israel Binational Science Foundation: 2015409

Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung: 0314000

Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung: 0315954

Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung: 031A536

Genome Canada: CTAG2 project

United States Agency for International Development: M34-037

Tel Aviv University: Manna Center Program for Food Safety and Security

University of Minnesota: Lieberman-Okinow endowment

Weizmann Institute of Science: Charles and Tillie Lubin Center for Plant Biotechnology


Data contact name

Distelfeld, Assaf

Data contact email



Intended use

This reference assembly will serve as a resource for accelerating the genome-assisted improvement of modern wheat varieties.

Temporal Extent Start Date



  • Not specified

Geographic Coverage


ISO Topic Category

  • biota
  • farming

National Agricultural Library Thesaurus terms

Triticum turgidum subsp. dicoccoides; wheat; evolution; domestication; crops; genetic engineering; allopolyploidy; chromosomes; tetraploidy; genes; genetic variation; mutation; genomics; genome assembly; diet; crossing; grain crops; genotype; Triticum turgidum subsp. dicoccon

Primary article PubAg Handle

Pending citation

  • No

Public Access Level

  • Public

Preferred dataset citation

Avni, Raz; Nave, Moran; Barad, Omer; Baruch, Kobi; Twardziok, Sven O.; Gundlach, Heidrun; Hale, Iago; Mascher, Martin; Spannagl, Manuel; Wiebe, Krystalee; Jordan, Katherine W.; Golan, Guy; Deek, Jasline; Ben-Zvi, Batsheva; Ben-Zvi, Gil; Himmelbach, Axel; MacLachlan, Ron P.; Sharpe, Andrew G.; Fritz, Allan; Ben-David, Roi; Budak, Hikmet; Fahima, Tzion; Korol, Abraham; Faris, Justin D.; Hernandez, Alvaro; Mikel, Mark A.; Levy, Avraham A.; Steffenson, Brian; Maccaferri, Marco; Tuberosa, Roberto; Cattivelli, Luigi; Faccioli, Primetta; Ceriotti, Aldo; Kashkush, Khalil; Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Komatsuda, Takao; Eilam, Tamar; Sela, Hanan; Sharon, Amir; Ohad, Nir; Chamovitz, Daniel A.; Mayer, Klaus F.X.; Stein, Nils; Ronen, Gil; Peleg, Zvi; Pozniak, Curtis J.; Akhunov, Eduard D.; Distelfeld, Assaf (2018). Data from: Wild emmer genome architecture and diversity elucidate wheat evolution and domestication. Science.

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