Ag Data Commons
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Data from: Disruption of semiochemical-mediated movement by the immature Trogoderma variabile Baillon and Trogoderma inclusum Le Conte (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) after exposure to long-lasting insecticide netting

posted on 2024-02-20, 19:42 authored by Sabita Ranabhat, Michael J. Domingue, Luke LeBar, Georgina V. Bingham, Kun Yan Zhu, William MorrisonWilliam Morrison

Four to six-week-old larvae of Trogoderma variabile and Trogoderma inclusum were used for the experiment. Both strains were originally obtained from the field in north-central Kansas in 2016 and 2012, respectively. Colonies of these species were reared under controlled conditions in an environmental chamber set to a temperature of 27.5 °C, 65% RH, and 14:10 (L:D) h photoperiod. Both species were fed 300 g of ground dog food (SmartBlend, Lamb flavor, PurinaOne, St. Louis, MO, USA) with oats sprinkled on top and a moistened, crumpled paper towel placed on the surface in a 950-ml mason jar.

Treatments The long-lasting insecticide-incorporated polyethylene netting (2 × 2 mm mesh, D-Terrance, Vestergaard Inc., Lausanne, Switzerland) included 0.4% deltamethrin, or control netting that was identical in physical properties but without insecticide. These were used with the movement assay. We assessed the movement in the vicinity of important pheromonal and food kairomones after exposure to LLIN or control netting. Food consisted of 0.01 g of organic, unbleached flour (Heartland Mills, Marienthal, KS, USA), and pheromonal stimuli included a broad spectrum, multi-species lure (PTL lure, IL-108-10, Batch#1288200321, Insects Limited, Westfield, IN, USA), including Trogoderma spp pheromone (Ranabhat et al. 2023a). In each replicate, we used a single pellet (white color), and affixed it in place so it did not move in a Petri dish using a 1 × 1 mm square of parafilm. For each replication of testing, we used a fresh lure.

Movement Assay The movement of larvae after exposure to the 0.4 % deltamethrin LLIN or a control netting in response to food cues (using 0.01 g of flour) or with conspecific sex pheromones (using a single bead from a disaggregated PTL lure held in place with a small square of parafilm), was tracked in six individual arenas (100 × 15 mm D: H) with a piece of filter paper (85 mm D, Ahlstrom-Munksjö, Helsinki, Finland) lining the bottom for 30 min using a network camera (GigE, Basler AG, Ahrenburg, Germany) affixed 76 cm above and centered over the dishes. The Petri dishes were backlit using a LED light box (42 × 30 cm W:L LPB3, Litup, Shenzhen, China) to increase contrast and affixed in place with white foam board. The video was streamed to a computer and processed in Ethovision (v.14.5 Noldus Inc., Leesburg, VA, USA). Prior to use in the movement assay, larvae of T. variabile or T. inclusum were exposed to the 0.4% deltamethrin LLIN or a control netting for 1 min in a 21 × 21 cm square Petri dish, then their movement was tracked individually after a post-exposure holding duration of 1 min or 24 h. A small 1.1 cm hidden stimulus zone encircled each stimulus, midway and centered on each half of the arena wherein movement was tracked separately from each half of the arena (control vs. treatment). The total distance moved (cm), instantaneous velocity (cm/s), frequency of entering each half of the petri dish and stimulus zone, cumulative duration spent in each zone (s), and latency of entering each zone (s) over a 30 min trial period was logged after exposure to a given treatment. The control side of the arena remained empty. A total of n = 16 replicates were run per treatment combination for both species

No-Choice Release-Recapture Assay A release- recapture experiment was conducted for the larvae of both T. variabile and T. inclusum where larvae were exposed to the 0.4% deltamethrin LLIN and control netting for 1 min. After exposure, treated insects were released at one corner of the sanded plastic bin (60 × 41.6 × 16.5 cm L:W:H ). A commercial pitfall trap (Dome Trap™, Trécé, Inc., Adair, OK, USA) that contained a PTL lure (used only white beads as above), or 0.01 g flour, or no stimuli (unbaited for control), was deployed in the opposite corner, diagonally across from the release point in the bin. The bins were located in a large (4.8 × 2.1 × 6 m, L:W:H) walk-in environmental chamber (Percival Instruments, Dallas County, IA, USA) set at constant conditions (27.5°C, 60% RH, and 14:10 L:D). A total of 10 larvae were released in each bin during each replicate. Treated larvae were given 24 h to disperse to the semiochemicals in each trap, and then the number of insects captured inside the trap, found on the bottom of the trap, on the stimulus half of container or on the non-stimulus half of the container were recorded. A total of n = 12 replicates were performed per treatment combination for the larvae of each species.

Resources in this dataset:

  • Resource Title: Ethovision Movement Assay File Name: ranabhat_etal_larval_dermestid_et_LLIN_olfactory_agdata_commons.csv

  • Resource Title: No-Choice Release-Recapture Assay for Larger Cabinet Beetle File Name: ranabhat_etal_larval_dermestid_rr_lcb_LLIN_agdata_commons.csv

  • Resource Title: No-Choice Release-Recapture Assay for Warehouse Beetle File Name: ranabhat_etal_larval_dermestid_rr_whb_LLIN_agdata_commons.csv


USDA-NIFA: 2020-70006-33000


Data contact name

Morrison, William R.

Data contact email


Ag Data Commons

Intended use

For evaluating response of warehouse beetle and larger cabinet beetle after exposure to insecticide netting in the presence of pheromones and kairomones only.

Temporal Extent Start Date


Temporal Extent End Date



  • irregular


  • Not specified

Geographic Coverage


Geographic location - description

1515 College Ave, Manhattan, KS 66502

ISO Topic Category

  • biota
  • farming

National Agricultural Library Thesaurus terms

Trogoderma variabile; netting; insect larvae; Kansas; deltamethrin; kairomones; flour; insects; sex pheromones; Trogoderma granarium; stored products; chemical ecology; pheromone traps

OMB Bureau Code

  • 005:18 - Agricultural Research Service

OMB Program Code

  • 005:040 - National Research

ARS National Program Number

  • 304

Pending citation

  • No

Related material without URL

Ranabhat, S., Michael J. Domingue, Luke Lebar, Georgina V. Bingham, Kun Yan Zhu, William R. Morrison III. 2023. Disruption of semiochemical-mediated movement by the immature Trogoderma variabile Baillon and Trogoderma inclusum Le Conte (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) after exposure to long-lasting insecticide netting. Environmental Entomology, in review.

Public Access Level

  • Public

Preferred dataset citation

Ranabhat, Sabita; Domingue, Michael J.; LeBar, Luke; Bingham, Georgina V.; Zhu, Kun Yan; Morrison, William R. (2023). Data from: Disruption of semiochemical-mediated movement by the immature Trogoderma variabile Baillon and Trogoderma inclusum Le Conte (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) after exposure to long-lasting insecticide netting. Ag Data Commons.