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Data from: Chapter 5: Energy Use in Agriculture. U.S. Agriculture and Forestry Greenhouse Gas Inventory: 1990-2018

posted on 2024-02-16, 21:46 authored by Irene M. Xiarchos

The primary greenhouse gas (GHG) sources for agriculture are nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from cropped and grazed soils, methane (CH4) emissions from ruminant livestock production and rice cultivation, and CH4 and N2O emissions from managed livestock waste. The management of cropped, grazed, and forestland has helped offset GHG emissions by promoting the biological uptake of carbon dioxide (CO2) through the incorporation of carbon into biomass, wood products, and soils, yielding a U.S. net emissions of 5,903 MMT CO2 eq (million metric tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalents). Net emissions equate to total greenhouse gas emissions minus CO2 sequestration in growing forests, wood products, and soils.

The report 'U.S. Agriculture and Forestry Greenhouse Gas Inventory: 1990-2018' serves to estimate U.S. GHG emissions for the agricultural sector, to quantify uncertainty in emission estimates, and to estimate the potential of agriculture to mitigate U.S. GHG emissions.

This dataset contains tabulated data from the figures and tables presented in Chapter 5, Energy Use in Agriculture, of the report. Data are presented for carbon dioxide emissions from on-farm energy use. Please refer to the report for full descriptions of and notes on the data.

Resources in this dataset:

  • Resource Title: Table 5-1.

    File Name: Table5_1.csv

    Resource Description: Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Fuel Source on U.S. Farms, 2018. Energy consumed is shown in the table as QBTU (quadrillion British thermal units). Carbon content is displayed as MMT C/QBTU (million metric tons carbon per quadrillion British thermal units). Emissions are shown as Tg CO2 eq. (teragrams carbon dioxide equivalent).

  • Resource Title: Data for Figure 5-1.

    File Name: Figure5_1.csv

    Resource Description: CO2 Emissions From Energy Use in Agriculture, by State, 2018 in MMT CO2 eq. (million metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent).

  • Resource Title: Data for Figure 5-2.

    File Name: Figure5_2.csv

    Resource Description: Energy use in agriculture, by source, 1965–2018 in QBTU (quadrillion British thermal units).

  • Resource Title: Data for Figure 5-3.

    File Name: Figure5_3.csv

    Resource Description: CO2 Emissions from Energy Use in Agriculture, by Fuel Source, 2001, 2005, 2008, 2013, and 2018 in MMT CO2 eq. (million metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent).

  • Resource Title: Chapter 5 tables and figures.

    File Name: Chapter 5


USDA: 58-0111-19-019


Data contact name

Hanson, Wes

Data contact email


Ag Data Commons

Intended use

Every year, USDA provides data, analysis, and support to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for their Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks, an official submission to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. USDA provides the data and analysis for the land use, land-use change, and forestry and agriculture chapters as well as the agriculture portion of the energy chapter. Emission and sink estimates are reported in aggregate on a national basis. Periodically, USDA utilizes the same data and methods to produce the USDA Agriculture and Forestry Greenhouse Gas Inventory. While the data and methods are consistent, the USDA report is disaggregated in order to show specific trends by land use or by region. Over the next few years, USDA and EPA will be updating key agricultural management practice and technology data. We expect that these new data inputs will significantly refine estimates of soil carbon, methane emissions from manure management systems, and nitrous oxide emissions from fertilizers.

Use limitations

Some tabular data are not directly comparable between the USDA and EPA publications because of the report layout and variations in the grouping of source activities. For example, this report includes emissions from energy combusted on the farm; the EPA report addresses energy in a separate chapter and includes farm combustion plus other industrial processes, such as the manufacture of fertilizers that occurs off-farm.

Temporal Extent Start Date


Temporal Extent End Date



  • periodic


  • Not specified

Geographic Coverage


Geographic location - description

United States

ISO Topic Category

  • climatologyMeteorologyAtmosphere
  • environment
  • farming

National Agricultural Library Thesaurus terms

greenhouse gases; greenhouse gas emissions; nitrous oxide; soil; methane; ruminants; livestock production; Oryza sativa; crop production; rice; animal wastes; forest land; carbon dioxide; carbon; biomass; wood products; United States; carbon sequestration; forests; forestry; carbon footprint; agricultural industry; uncertainty; data collection; energy; USDA; environmental protection; inventories; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change; land use change; soil carbon; methane production; animal manure management; management systems; fertilizers; farms; combustion; manufacturing; Natural Resources Earth and Environmental Sciences; Farms and Farming Systems; Forest Science and Forest Products; agricultural management; land use; energy use and consumption

OMB Bureau Code

  • 005:00 - Department of Agriculture

Pending citation

  • No

Related material without URL

Xiarchos, I.M. (2022). Chapter 5: Energy Use in Agriculture. In U.S. Agriculture and Forestry Greenhouse Gas Inventory: 1990–2018. Technical Bulletin No. 1957, United States Department of Agriculture, Office of the Chief Economist, Washington, DC. p. 177-181. January 2022. Hanson, W.L., S.J. Del Grosso, L. Gallagher, Eds.

Public Access Level

  • Public

Preferred dataset citation

Xiarchos, Irene M. (2021). Data from: Chapter 5: Energy Use in Agriculture. U.S. Agriculture and Forestry Greenhouse Gas Inventory: 1990-2018. Ag Data Commons.