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Avirulent Isolates of Penicillium chrysogenum to Control the Blue Mold of Apple Caused by P. expansum

posted on 2024-06-11, 07:03 authored by United States Department of Agriculture
Blue mold is an economically significant postharvest disease of pome fruit that is primarily caused by Penicillium expansum. To manage this disease and sustain product quality, novel decay intervention strategies are needed that also maintain long-term efficacy. Biocontrol organisms and natural products are promising tools for managing postharvest diseases. Here, two Penicillium chrysogenum isolates, 404 and 413, were investigated as potential biocontrol agents against P. expansum in apple. Notably, 404 and 413 were non-pathogenic in apple, yet they grew vigorously in vitro when compared to the highly aggressive P. expansum R19 and Pe21 isolates. Whole-genome sequencing and species-specific barcoding identified both strains as P. chrysogenum. Each P. chrysogenum strain was inoculated in apple with the subsequent co-inoculation of R19 or Pe21 simultaneously, 3, or 7 days after prior inoculation with 404 or 413. The co-inoculation of these isolates showed reduced decay incidence and severity, with the most significant reduction from the longer establishment of P. chrysogenum. In vitro growth showed no antagonism between species, further suggesting competitive niche colonization as the mode of action for decay reduction. Both P. chrysogenum isolates had incomplete patulin gene clusters but tolerated patulin treatment. Finally, hygromycin resistance was observed for both P. chrysogenum isolates, yet they are not multiresistant to apple postharvest fungicides. Overall, we demonstrate the translative potential of P. chrysogenum to serve as an effective biocontrol agent against blue mold decay in apples, pending practical optimization and formulation.


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BioProject Curation Staff


National Center for Biotechnology Information

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  • Non-geospatial

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  • biota

National Agricultural Library Thesaurus terms

sequence analysis

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  • No

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  • Public

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It is recommended to cite the accession numbers that are assigned to data submissions, e.g. the GenBank, WGS or SRA accession numbers. If individual BioProjects need to be referenced, state that "The data have been deposited with links to BioProject accession number PRJNA945086 in the NCBI BioProject database ("

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